Paper presentation ideas

Repeater Insertion for Coupled VLSI Interconnects


Repeaters are often introduced in interconnect to reduce propagation delay. In Ultra deep sub micron (UDSM) technology, interconnect lines are placed very close to each other and often run together for long distance. These lines therefore exhibit severe crosstalk behavior due to inductive and capacitive coupling. The line and coupling capacitance; self and mutual inductance should therefore be considered in determining the optimum number of the repeaters for coupled lines. It is well defined that a trade off exists between the transient power dissipation and the minimum propagation delay in repeater insertion.

Traditionally repeaters are inserted for minimum Power Delay Product criterion. Optimizing the repeater inserted to achieve minimum PDP although satisfies high speed, low-power design objectives but not crosstalk constraints. Such designs sometimes lead to severe crosstalk. This paper shows that repeater insertion reduces not only the propagation delay but also crosstalk levels for coupled lines. Repeaters can be efficiently utilized for reduction of propagation delay and crosstalk noise at a trade of marginal increase in power dissipation. The Power-Delay-Crosstalk- Product (PDCP) criterion is introduced as an efficient technique to insert repeater in coupled interconnects. Based on PDCP a reduction in crosstalk of about 60 times and delay of 4.2% is achieved at trade of 13.2% increase in power dissipation in comparison to PDP.



Say bye to air pollution! Save fuel! Save money!

The core of our project is to control the amount of ethanol injected into the diesel - ethanol engine by controlling the fuel injection valve using microcontroller 89C51. Fuel injection controller uses the engine speed and acceleration of the vehicle as parameters for controlling. Our hardware module comprises of Displacement and Speed Sensors, an injector valve controller Unit, a Display Unit for displaying measured parameters and a Main controller unit, i.e., the microcontroller (89C51) Unit.

Our software module is powered by MATLAB for simulation and our algorithm has been verified by analyzing the timing constraints for the controller and an assembler has been used for 8051 coding validation.

The hardware and software modules are interfaced so as to meet our requirement. The sensor’s outputs are studied by microcontroller and fuzzy logic is used for decision making. Valve opening duration is fixed and transferred to valve controller relay for controlling operations. Measured values are displayed on the display unit for observation purposes. The working of the software and hardware has been studied in realtime. The outputs have been verified and it has been found that the proto-type is working satisfactorily.

The overall fuel efficiency (Diesel-Ethanol) is increased. Amount of un burnt fuel is almost reduced and in turn it reduces air-pollution, as studied. It has been observed that the vehicle smoke is less harmful to the environment as well as less toxic and also the project reduces the overall cost for consumer as well as saves Our Country’s Economy.

Say bye to air pollution! Save fuel! Save money!



This presentation is about nanorobots and how it is used in medical field to cure diseases. Nanotechnology is an enabling technique that could have an impact on the world that dwarfs the internet’s impact on our daily lives. Nanorobots are manufactured using this nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is not only used in electronics field, apart from that it is going to play an important in humans in future. Without surgery without drop of blood we can cure the diseases using this awesome technology. In this presentation we are going to learn about nanorobots that are used in curing “BRAIN TUMOR”. This technology not only finds a cure for brain tumors, but also for any other unwanted elements in the body like, kidney stones, cancer cells etc without any side-effects. First we are going to see the introduction about nanotechnology, its application and its programming technique.

The future of technology becomes easier to predict Computers will compute faster materials will become stronger and medicine will cure more diseases. The technology that works at the nanoscale level of molecules and atoms will be a large part of this future enabling great improvements in all the fields of human presence. The study of such a technology is Nanotechnology. In this presentation, we are going to deliver a paper on Nanotechnology, its applications in various fields and elaborate description about Nanorobotics.



It’s an irony that some of our contemporaries are deprived of God’s greatest gift - sense of sight. This paper aims to bring a new life to the people so called ‘blind’. The model devised to help the visually challenged is called as the Opto-Sono converter (OSC).

Our objective is to propose a solution that will solve most of the hurdles faced by visually challenged. It is also devised to ensure that it is economical and will touch lives by helping the visually challenged see the world through their ears. With the OSC we are aiming at helping the visually challenged to access any text. The text to be read need not be in Braille thus providing them with the privilege close to that of a sighted person. The other prominent goal of the project is to convert any picture to its corresponding sound to provide synthetic vision, by exploiting the neural plasticity of the human brain through training. To enhance navigation, GPS is also interfaced with the OSC that will help them find their location at any point of time.



Industrial robots, which are heavy moving bodies, show high risk of damage when working and also during training sessions in dense environment of other robots. This initiated the allure for lighter robot constructions using Soft arms. Soft arms that exhibit a close similitude to human arms reduce the use of heavy driving equipments like motors at each joint. Soft arms create powerful, compact, compliance and light robotic arms and consists of pneumatic actuators like McKibben muscles which is a rubber bladder surrounded by a helically weaved un stretchable nylon cloth which converts the radial stress into axial stress, which in turn is converted into useful work by the use of apt mechanisms.

This paper solves certain problems in the soft arms by the use of Electro Active Polymers (EAP) as sensors, which also simplify a robotic finger models by acting like an actuator. Ion-exchange Polymer Metal Composite (IPMC) is one of the EAPs, which in the form of metal strips can be bend using little voltage and a voltage is produced across its width when it is mechanically deformed. Highly Dynamic sensing characteristics of IPMC strips were remarkable in accuracy and repeatability and found to be superior to existing motion sensors and micro sensors. A new type of soft actuator and multi-fingered robotic hand made from IPMC artificial muscles will be quite superior to conventional grippers and multi-fingered robotic hands.

This paper would obliterate all the difficulties currently present in McKibben muscles, which currently restricts its application. Adroit use of the solutions provided in this paper would abet researchers to produce highly efficient artificial muscles.

A Fast Simulation Approach for Inductive Effects of VLSI Interconnects


Modeling on-chip inductive effects for interconnects of multi GHz microprocessors remains challenging. SPICE simulation of these effects is very slow because of the large number of mutual inductances. Meanwhile, ignoring the nonlinear behavior of drivers in a fast linear circuit simulator results in large errors for the inductive effect.

In this paper, a fast and accurate time-domain transient analysis approach is presented, which captures the non-linearity of circuit drivers, the effect of non-ideal ground and de-coupling capacitors in a bus structure. The proposed method models the non-linearity of drivers in conjunction with specific bus geometries. Linearized waveforms at each driver output are incorporated into an interconnect reduced-order simulator for fast transient simulation.

In addition, non-ideal ground and de-coupling capacitor models enable accurate signal and ground bounce simulations. Results show that this simulation approach is upto 68 TIMES faster than SPICE while maintaining 95% accuracy.



Intelligent vision systems (IVS) represent an exciting part of modern sensing, computing, and engineering systems. The principal information source in IVS is the image, a two dimensional representation of a three dimensional scene. The main advantage of using IVS systems is that the information is in a form that can be interpreted by humans.

Our paper is an image process application for abnormal incident detection, which can be used in high security installation, subways, etc. In our work, motion cues are used to classify dynamic scenes and subsequently allow the detection of abnormal movements, which may be related critical situations.

Successive frames are extracted from the video stream and compared By subtracting the second image from the first, that difference image is obtained. This is the segmented to aid error measurement and thresholding. If is the threshold is exceeded, the human operator is alerted. So, that he / she may take remedial action. Thus by processing the input image suitably, our system alerts operators to any abnormal incidents, which might lead to crititical situations.



Electronic contents of automobiles and other vehicles have grown rapidly in recent years. Embedded microcontrollers are used in a wide range of vehicle applications for control, convenience, and comfort Examples range from sophisticated engine and braking controls to automated radios and individual passenger temperature controls.

As the electronics content of vehicles have increased, so have the electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems. These range from annoyances (jamming an on-board AM of FM radio) to upset or damage (blowing out an engine control module due to power transients.) The problems are expected to get worse as system clock speeds and logic edge rates increase, due to increased EMI emissions and decreased EMI immunity.

This application note describes the automotive EMI environments, and then discusses how to identify and prevent many common EMI problems at the design stage. Although a range of solutions will be addressed, emphasis is on printed circuit board design methods.

This application note also describes some recent Intel sponsored research efforts that investigate EMI to onboard FM radio receivers. Several different design approaches were tested, using both two layer and multiplayer circuit boards. The test program was based on an ABS (anti-lock braking system) control module that uses the Intel 80C196KR microcontroller. The results and recommended ``low noise'' design concepts, however, apply to any microcontroller design used in vehicular applications.

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